The task of indoor environmental lighting design is to comprehensively use the technical means and artistic means and modern science and technology rules and aesthetic principles according to the basic purpose of the design, fully grasp the various factors of the design environment object, make full use of favorable conditions, and actively exert creative thinking. To create an indoor lighting environment that meets the physical and functional requirements of production, work and living, and meets people's physiological and psychological requirements.
1 Factors affecting the indoor light environment and the principles of environmental lighting treatment The indoor environmental atmosphere is mainly affected by two factors, construction and lighting. Architectural factors include the scale of the building, the function of the room, the interior decoration, the furnishings, the texture and color of the furniture materials, etc. They provide the basic conditions for creating an indoor atmosphere and are fundamentally influential factors. Lighting factors include lighting methods, type of light source, form of lighting, art processing techniques, etc. These factors provide sufficient conditions for creating an indoor atmosphere. By understanding these two influencing factors and rationally applying the changes of various factors, we can create a variety of indoor atmospheres.
The design of building scale, room function, interior decoration, furnishings, furniture, etc. all belong to the category of interior design and are factors that affect the indoor atmosphere. However, the most influential indoor atmosphere is the facing material. The veneer material has the properties of texture, texture, color, etc. It is rich in artistic expression and will affect the indoor atmosphere to a large extent. The light has the characteristics of reflection, transmission, refraction and projection direction. When the characteristics of the light are combined with the properties of the facing material, the two interact and adjust to create elegant, luxurious, simple and lively. The indoor atmosphere of the room. For example, general lighting in a room usually controls the atmosphere of the entire indoor space. This is because it has a very close relationship with the indoor shape, the lighting scheme, the lighting of the lamps, the lighting art techniques, etc., and plays an overall role in the overall design and coordination of the lighting design. Partial illumination or partitioned general illumination can meet the lighting requirements of local places, and can compensate or coordinate the general illumination of the room. As a result, the brightness distribution of the indoor space can be balanced to create a light and dark atmosphere, while the key lighting and Local illumination is similar in that it emphasizes a specific space or object with light, and in these specific spaces or objects, a very bright atmosphere can be created. In order to better meet the requirements of proper illumination, reasonable distribution of brightness, good directionality of lighting, color coordination, safe and reliable lighting design and economical aesthetics, indoor environmental lighting should meet the following principles: comprehensive consideration of various factors of lighting. When artistically processing a luminaire, it is necessary to fully consider the interaction of various factors such as its light characteristics, light distribution, decorative color, material texture, components, combination, and shape.
The use of lighting should be targeted. It is best to have a division of labor for the entire ambient lighting and key object lighting. The task of ambient lighting is to have uniform illumination throughout the room; accent lighting is used to highlight art deco or an object that requires attention.
Also consider the artistic effects of day and night, especially after the lights are turned on at night. The luminaire is not only used at night, it is also part of the architectural decoration during the day. Therefore, the design should consider how to associate with other decorations in the daytime to form a whole.
Combining art lighting forms with architectural use requirements, in a room, different activities may be required, requiring different lighting conditions, especially in some exhibition buildings, different exhibits require different lighting methods, should be They cleverly combine to create a good atmosphere.
The traditional art form of lighting should be compatible with modern lighting technology and technical conditions. Architectural art lighting has its own characteristics and individuality. On the basis of inheriting the traditional art form of Chinese lamps, combined with the new light source and new materials of modern lighting technology, it should create new lamps with national characteristics, local characteristics and the atmosphere of the times.
2 Reasonable choice of artificial light source and arrangement of artificial light source for lighting influence the light art effect. When selecting a light source, it should be fully considered according to the room function, lighting mode, lamp form and required ambient atmosphere, so that the most suitable light source can be selected to control the light environment of the whole room. In the indoor space, the position, direction and projection angle of the light source are used to create a light and shadow effect on the person and the object, thereby forming a three-dimensional feeling. It is also possible to use the light intensity, color and color rendering of the light source to create a colorful ambient atmosphere in the interior space, to express the artistic effect of the light, or to use the combination of the light source and the light fixture to enable the two to exert their respective expressive powers. Thereby enhancing the artistic effect of the light.
In the interior design, the luminaire can make the light distribution reasonable, limit the occurrence of glare, improve the utilization of the light source, and provide the function of providing illumination and beautifying the environment. Since the luminaire can add appreciation value to the indoor space, the luminaire becomes an important part of the interior design, and the correct arrangement of the luminaire is decisive for the lighting effect. The arrangement of the luminaires depends on a reasonable lighting design. Various layouts, such as centralized, decentralized, accented, lining, single, combined, fixed, mobile, etc., and sometimes required for general lighting, sometimes required for accent lighting, so When arranging, the lighting function must first be satisfied, and the second is to satisfy the decorative effect, which truly reflects the combination of practicality and decoration. It is necessary to consider the specific conditions of the lighting function requirements, and must not be forced to be uniform. The luminaire should maximize the effectiveness of the light, ensure the effective use of light energy, make the distribution of light reasonable, improve the utilization of the light source, and prevent or limit glare, thus creating a comfortable light environment. The form of the luminaire is a striking artistic image in the interior space, so it must be aesthetically pleasing to show the decorative effect. As interior design tends to be modern, new luminaires should be designed or selected based on design requirements. Pay special attention to the form of the lamps should not be too complicated, and the variety and specifications should not be too much to adapt to the modern trend. The material of the luminaire should exhibit texture, color and high precision craftsmanship.
3 Improve lighting quality, comfortable light environment, relying on high-quality lighting effects, and high-quality lighting effects must be illuminance, brightness, glare, shadow, color rendering, stability, etc. in the illuminated environment The factors can be fully and correctly processed. On the basis of meeting the general lighting function, the indoor environment lighting emphasizes the artistic effect of the lighting on the setting atmosphere. To express the theme, the colors must be coordinated while avoiding glare. Therefore, there are specialities in the requirements of illuminance, brightness distribution, light direction and light color.
Ample illumination. In some buildings, a lot of architectural decoration treatments have been made, which create conditions for people to concentrate on watching. At the same time, the entire building space also needs to create a cheerful and bright atmosphere, which requires full illumination, but the level of illumination should be determined according to its specific environment, and does not require uniform illumination.
Comfortable brightness distribution. The brightness distribution of the built environment is an important factor affecting people's visual comfort. Brightness gives a sense of generosity, while faintness appears narrow. From the perspective of adapting to the habits of the human eye, it is best to adopt a brightness distribution close to the natural environment. In nature, it is often a bright sky and a darker ground, so the ceiling can be handled slightly brighter indoors.
Glare problem. In general lighting, the brightness contrast is too large, otherwise it will affect the visibility, but in art lighting, a certain brightness contrast is often used to achieve the purpose of emphasis. In order to achieve gorgeous and vivid flickering effects, some lustrous materials, such as crystal glass and gold-plated iron parts, are often used in art lamps to produce high brightness. Although visually affected, the viewing psychology is satisfied. However, it should be noted that the brightness contrast should not be too large, otherwise it will produce glare and affect the viewing.
The direction of the light. Using different directions of light to form different shadows can produce a completely different viewing image. Thanks to the ingenious combination of light and shadow, the vivid outline of the architectural and architectural components is fully demonstrated, which will give people a sense of sculpture and enrich the expressive power of architectural art.
Tonal fit. The spectral composition of artificial light and natural light is different, and thus the color development effect is also different. If the light color and space color of the light do not match, it will destroy the indoor art effect, resulting in an unsuitable atmosphere. For example, in a room decorated with yellow and red, using cool white fluorescent lighting will make the bright red Huang Meng has a gray tone, which destroys the warm and gorgeous feeling. If you switch to an incandescent lamp that emits more red light, it will have the opposite effect, making the red and yellow decorations look brighter, warmer and more gorgeous.
5 other art processing techniques of lighting In the lighting design, the lighting method and the architectural designing techniques are closely combined and integrated into a variety of layouts and artistic treatments, which not only satisfy the use function of the room, but also have decorative effects. In this way, the relationship between lighting and interior design is the main content of creating lighting art, which plays a role in guiding the overall design of lighting. The art processing techniques of lighting methods are various. For example, the artistic processing techniques of lighting methods can be determined according to factors such as the use function of the room, the size of the space, the quality level of the decoration, etc.; the lighting method is determined according to the actual needs of the indoor space, so that the lighting Through the various techniques such as strength and weakness, light and darkness, and looming, different lighting art effects are created; the color and color matching of the light and the color of the object are used to create a warm color in the indoor space, showing a warm and warm feeling; It can also create cool colors that show a refreshing, cool effect. In addition, by using the color and color rendering of the light source, you can create a variety of color effects. In the large space, the artistic treatment of the light can create a relatively small space with a relatively independent atmosphere. The small space defined by building components and fittings, furnishings, and furniture can create a large space through the connection and coordination of lights, but still maintain the original independence and privacy of the small space. The parts that need to be highlighted in the indoor space are treated with key lights, which not only improves the visibility of this part, but also creates a bright, clear light environment. According to the use of indoor space, such as the stage, Karaoke, etc., special lighting treatment is often required. In this case, the hall often uses artistic lighting, and allows the lights to flicker or retain a little glare to create a lively environment and achieve a combination of light, sound and color. In short, in the interior space, the effect of lighting art is to create the atmosphere of the design requirements. In order to meet the specific use functions of the space, it is necessary to use the appropriate lighting art techniques.
The art of lighting was originally based on lighting technology. In addition to the use of photometric elements such as luminous flux, illumination, height, etc., some artistic techniques such as flow and stillness, contrast (brightness contrast, light contrast, light color) were also applied. Contrast) and assimilation, emphasis and control (lighting up), level and peace, concealment and Luming, in order to gain rich artistic appeal, and finally achieve the artistic effect of lighting. Lasers are also used in the ballrooms, karaoke bars, or movie and television lighting that are closely related to architectural lighting to achieve artistic appeal. Blue, cyan, and green lasers are typically used with argon-ion lasers, and yellow, orange, and red lasers are used with dye lasers, which are used in film and television lighting or in recreational architectural lighting.
It should be pointed out that the art of lighting not only has to play an artistic effect, but also closely cooperates with other categories in the art field to create a comprehensive artistic effect. Related art categories include architecture, sculpture, music, drama, dance, film, television, etc. It is the artistic effect of lighting that enriches their artistic expression and appeal and enhances artistic value.
5 Lighting design points of various buildings According to the nature of the building and the functional requirements, the design engineering can be divided into two categories: one is living, which is to meet the needs of people's living and living; the other is public. The architecture category is dominated by people's colorful social life activities. No matter which type, although they are more types, each has the same or similar indoor space requirements in terms of function. The lighting design points are as follows: For rooms mainly used for living, entertainment and social activities, Artistic effects and lighting comfort are the main design directions.
For the office and study, in order to improve visibility and conserve energy, the lights should be concentrated in the work area.
In the drawing room and typing room, the luminaires can be designed to be arranged in an asymmetrical manner, and the light mainly comes from the left front direction.
In the sales halls of shops and display merchandise, the main task of lighting is to attract the attention of customers to display merchandise.
In the exhibition window, you can enhance the artistic effect of lighting, publicize the goods and beautify the environment by partially strengthening the lights, coloring the lights or changing the colors regularly (color lights).
In museums and art galleries, an important requirement for lighting is to obtain the correct color rendering of exhibits such as pictures, textiles and other precious historical relics, and to pay attention to the full stereoscopic effect of the exhibits (with sidelights) At the same time, attention should be paid to the protection of exhibits to prevent deterioration of the color of some exhibits due to prolonged or intense light radiation (radiation protection).
In the gymnasium, the light-emitting hybrid light source should be fully utilized, and full attention should be paid to improving the vertical illumination (especially the diving springboard, etc.). For lighting, such as halls, stairs, walkways, etc., the lighting is mainly guiding and ensuring safety. The vertical illumination ratio of these places Horizontal illumination is more important (but not bigger).
The art processing techniques for building ambient lighting have many examples of successful examples of layout, light efficiency, form, scale and materials that are used primarily for large buildings and demanding buildings.
The treatment method based on the traditional national form of art lamps. Its characteristics are based on the traditional artistic lamps and lanterns created by the working people of our country in the past. After the reform and the organic combination with the interior, the lighting scheme is designed with strong artistic decoration and strong national color.
Advanced luxury lighting treatment methods. It is characterized by rich luxury, grandeur, strong new ideas and a sense of the times. Mainly refers to chandeliers, such as for hotels, big restaurants, ç¯¼-level hotels.
A simple and uniform style of luminaires is used to form a regular pattern of processing. Its features are easy to install, giving people a sense of neatness, simplicity, simplicity, generosity and beauty, often more attractive than art lighting solutions, easy to make.
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