Octagonal saying

In China's ancient jade system, cockroaches are the most striking type. This is not only because the origin of the embarrassment is very long, but it disappeared earlier in the civilized era. Moreover, because of its peculiar shape, it has a mysterious veil that is difficult to reveal. Its original meaning and function are different from ancient times to today. Mo.

The basic form of the crucible is a square cylinder with a circular tube in the middle. The two ends of the tube protrude from the square and are called "shooting". Some squares have sharp edges and corners, some are rounded corners; some have low and simple sections, some are high and divided into several sections; some have carved patterns on the corners, and some have plain faces. There is a kind of cymbal called "cylindrical". Without a square profile, only four rectangular slabs are embossed symmetrically on all sides of the cylinder. This type of cockroach is mostly low, and can be regarded as a variant or simplification of the square column, which may be a modification of the shape of the jade material during production. Some scholars call this purely cylindrical jade a "bangle shape". Some of these objects are of considerable height and are obviously not "bangles"; some have different diameters at both ends and are horseshoe-shaped, and may be arm guards with protective performance. They are not suitable for belonging to apes.

The pre-Qin classics say that it is a ritual device and a funeral device. The highest citation rate is the phrase "Zhou Li Chun Li Chun Guan Da Zong Bo": "To use jade as a six-piece, to worship the heavens and the earth. In the sky, to the heavens, to the Yellow Emperor, to the East, to In the south, Akasaka is in the west, and in the west, Xuanzang is in the north." According to this, 璧 and 琮 symbolize heaven and earth respectively. The mysterious patterns on the jade articles of Liangzhu Culture are more common in the two types of artifacts. This shows that the two are used in combination, they bear a certain "mission" in the spiritual realm. "Zhou Li Chunguan·Dianrui" also said that the above six kinds of jade can also be used to "contain the corpse". Zheng Xuan specifically explained the position of various jade corpses in the note: "Wang Gui is at the left, 璋 at the beginning Hu is on the right, kneeling on the foot, kneeling on the back, kneeling on the abdomen."

Zheng Xuan said whether the position of the six kinds of jade is custom-made, let alone, but it is a fact that it was used as a funeral jade in ancient times, but it is sometimes placed in the abdomen, and sometimes placed in the underarm waist. It should be pointed out that the etiquette of the aristocratic society contained in "Zhou Li" has obviously been politically colored; and the appearance of jealousy is far thousands of years before "Zhou Li". What is its original meaning? Like its class. It’s like a heaven, and it’s like a land. "Although the octagonal scorpion has not been found so far, because the outer shape of the scorpion is indeed square, and as mentioned above, 琮 is often accompanied by a circular 璧, so the interpretation of Zheng Xuan has a great influence on later generations. It has been recognized by many scholars. This is the earliest viewpoint of elucidating its meaning based on the shape of 琮. It means that the shape of 琮 is imitation of the earth, and its function is the spirit of the land.

In the past half century, with the increasing number of jade plaques discovered by archaeology, people's attention to cockroaches has become more and more hot. Especially after the 1970s, due to the large number of unearthed Liangzhu cultures in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, the study of jade has gradually become a highlight of the cultural field. As for the origin and meaning of 琮, there are at least thirteen kinds of existing idioms, which can be divided into three categories.

The first category focuses on the practical things in social life to explain the origin of 琮, and believes that because those artifacts have a special meaning for human existence, people value them, sanctify them, and then jade them, giving them some kind of Magical performance. The second type of vision is a symbol of ancient reproductive worship. The tribal era prevails in reproductive worship, and the materialized forms of reproductive worship are mostly pregnant female images or imitations of male and female organs, and the latter are mostly. The third category analyzes and judges the factors such as the mysterious ornamentation of the Liangzhu culture jade, and believes that it has the totem pole nature, or that it is the instrument used by the wizard to hold religious ceremonies. The initial creative concept of the shape is a square symbol, with a circle symbolizing the sky. The middle pass means that the heaven and earth gods can freely come; the ornamentation on the skull is the totem symbol or symbol of the tribe, which may also be considered to help people, The spiritual animal image that God wants to communicate.

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